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Abo Incompatibility

Overview

ABO incompatibility results when fetal blood type differs from maternal blood type.

The major blood typesareA, B and O. The major forms of incompatibility between the mother and fetus are : when the mother is O and the fetus is B or A or AB (most common); when the mother is A and the fetus is B or AB (uncommon); and when the mother is B and the fetus is A or AB (uncommon). In these cases the mother creates antibodies against the incompatible blood type. These antibodies cross the placenta into the infant's blood stream where they begin to destroy the same type blood cells. ABO incompatibility is similar to Rh incompatibility but generally creates much milder problems than Rh incompatibility. Neonates affected by ABO incompatibility may have elevated levels of bilirubin and become jaundiced. Severe incompatibility problems may require an exchange transfusion. However, most ABO incompatibility is relatively minor and the jaundice it produces can usually be treated with bili-lights (phototherapy).


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Causes

Blood type form proteins or antibodies in people, they cause their immune system to react against other blood types. When their body is exposed to any other blood type the incompatibility or disorder occurs and causes the person to feel Back pain, get Blood in urine, Feeling of "impending doom", feeling Feverish and Yellow skin jaundice. During any kind of blood transfusion it is necessary to check the blood type to prevent any complication.


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Signs & Symptoms

The main symptom is jaundice in the newborn and incompatible maternal and fetal blood type. The condition might worsen with anemia or kernicterus.

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Prevention

Prevention is not practical. Early recognition of an incompatibility allows for easy and inexpensive treatment.


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Treatments
Drug Administration Modern Medicine

When the person is exposed to any other blood type and reaction occurs the treatment available is:

    * Antihistamines: they are drugs prescribed for treating allergic reactions
    * Steroids: Drugs to reduce and treat severe swelling and allergies
    * Intravenous: In case medication doesn’t work orally and the condition is bad fluids with antihistamines and steroids need to be induced through intravenous or injectibles in the vein.
    * In case the blood pressure become low medication needs to be given to raise blood pressure or saline water or liquids with salt help.

Phototherapy Modern Medicine

Phototherapy with bili-lights standard treatment for the elevated bilirubin and jaundice . On rare occasion an exchangetransfusion may be indicated.

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