Blood poisoning is a layman's term for the sepsis.Sepsis is a life threatening condition in which there is growth of bacteria and other toxic products in the body with a severe inflammatory condition in the body called as Systemic inflammatory response syndrome(SIRS).Therefore sepsis=SIRS+ infection from the bacteria, fungi,virus,etc.Infection from the bacteria in the blood is called bacteriaemia.Infection from the fungus is called as fungaemia but if these condition get mixed with the SIRS then it is known as Sepsis.Severe sepsis is also another condition which means that sepsis+organ dysfunction while the septic shock is defined as the sepsis with the refractory arterial hypo tension or arterial hypo tension.Arterial hypo tension leads to the organ dysfunction.
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In majority of cases sepsis is due to the infection by bacteria like gram negative bacilli(E.coli,P.aueroginosa), staphylococcus aureus,streptococcus species,Enterococcus
Candida( a fungi) also causes sepsis.These infectious agents begin infecting the organ and then enters into the blood and then it is easy to spread them in any oragan causing start of inflammatory process anywhere and then there is organ dysfunction.These process actually tried to maintain the normal conditions of the body..
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Sepsis is characterized by the acute inflammation throughout the entire body.
Leucocytosis(increased WBC in the blood)
Tachycardia(high heart rate more than 100 beats per minute)
Tachypnoea(high respiratior rate with 20 per minute.)
Later four conditions are necessary to called a patient is in sepsis
Responses from the body to the bacteria also causes damage to the organs and vasculature of the body.Infection causes activation of coagulation pathway and complement pathway to induce inflammatory response
Various endocrine glands like adrenal gland also become active which adds more to the problem.
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Sepsis is highly dangerous situation fro the life so, it needs an immediate treatment.Main problem with the treatment of sepsis is that if in any hour you miss to give antibiotics as a part of treatment then it Will lead to the increase in the mortality rate by 7%.
Antibiotics like vancomycin, a glycopeptide antibiotic is use to treat the MRSA (Methicillin resistant staph aureus).
Surgical drainage of infected fluid
Support to the organs like dialysis to support kidneys while mechanical ventilation to support the lungs
Drug and fluid therapy for the circulatory failure
Removal of limbs also done to save the life of patient.
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